The fish species found at the archaeological settlement sites from the Neolithic, indicate the exploitation of a variety of species in local and regional ecosystems. The fishery focus differs considerably between the sites on the large islands of the Baltic Sea and those in an archipelago environment. Perch, pike, cyprinids, whitefish, salmonids, flounder and sculpin were the target species along the coast of Eastern Middle Sweden. The largest amount of flounder was found at the northernmost site Bjästamon in Ångermanland. Cod and herring were predominant on Gotland and Åland. Larger cod and herring were captured in the waters near Gotland than in the Åland archipelago. The evaluation of the large assemblage of bone fishhooks from the Ajvide site on Gotland confirm a highly developed fishing technology for hook and line fishing for medium sized cod. The various recovered fish species from the sites are also seasonal indicators valuable for interpreting prehistoric activities. Most of the Neolithic sites show sufficiently many fish species to cover a year round occupation.